Penile erection is managed by two mechanisms: the reflex erection, which is achieved by directly touching the penile shaft, and the psychogenic erection, which is achieved by erotic or emotional stimuli. Impotence can be treated — sometimes even without drugs.
Tribulus had been used as traditional medicine to treat sexual dysfunction and male infertility in Europe and Asia for many decades before improvement in scientific extraction techniques allowed identification of its active ingredient, protodioscin. It is estimated that about 10% to 20% of impotence cases are the direct result of various psychological factors, such as low self-esteem, depression, and — especially — stress and anxiety (general and performance anxieties). The practice, which involved inspection of the complainants by court experts, was declared obscene in 1677.
Modern public health
A vacuum device composed of a plastic cylinder, pump and elastic ring or band can be used to affect an erection. The active ingredient of Tribulus acts as a natural precursor to these hormones and is converted into its final forms by the body's own natural enzymes.
It is estimated that about 10% to 20% of impotence cases are the direct result of various psychological factors, such as low self-esteem, depression, and — especially — stress and anxiety (general and performance anxieties). There are two methods for measuring changes in penile rigidity and circumference during nocturnal erection: snap gauge and strain gauge. Impotence can be treated — sometimes even without drugs.
The practice of vaccination became prevalent in the 1800s, following the pioneering work of Edward Jenner in treating smallpox. James Lind's discovery of the causes of scurvy amongst sailors and its mitigation via the introduction of fruit on lengthy voyages was published in 1754
Public health - early roots
Public health has early roots in antiquity. From the beginnings of human civilization, it was recognized that polluted water and lack of proper waste disposal spread communicable diseases (theory of miasma).
The focus of a public health intervention is to prevent and manage diseases, injuries and other health conditions through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy behaviors, communities and environments. Many diseases are preventable through simple, non-medical methods. For example, research has shown that the simple act of hand washing with soap can prevent many contagious diseases. In other cases, treating a disease or controlling a pathogen can be vital to preventing its spread to others, such as during an outbreak of infectious disease, or contamination of food or water supplies. Public health communications programs, vaccination programs, and distribution of condoms are examples of common public health measures. Measures such as these have contributed greatly to the health of populations and increases in life expectancy.